USA: Science Bloggers Explain Fukushima

This post is part of our special coverage Japan Earthquake 2011.

UPDATE (March 17): Josef Oehmen's original post (linked below) has been removed by Jason Morgan, apparently at the author's request. The post has been edited significantly and republished at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Blog at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Oehmen's original post reflected the situation at the time – when only one of the Fukushima reactors was experiencing problems. His comments about the potential release of radioactivity have been removed in the revised post. Jason Morgan's original post now conveys a message from Dr. Oehmen directing readers to the MIT blog:

The version on is the most accurate, and as you can tell in many parts different to the version that appeared here on Jason’s blog. This post is not keeping track of or explaining events after Mar 12. Events kept developing, and many people keep sharing their discovery with me that one is always smarter after the fact.

Science bloggers at's The Great Beyond continue to monitor the situation very closely, including Geoff Brumfiel, who has provided periodic updates on radiation levels both near the damaged reactor and at various distances from it.  His March 17 post includes the following:

NHK also reports elevated radiation levels around Fukushima prefecture. At Fukushima City, 65 km northwest of the plant and well outside the evacuation zone, authorities reported levels as high as 13.9 μSv/hr (0.0139 mSv/hr), according to the broadcaster. That is well above the background, and equivalent to 120 mSv/yr in rough terms, but it will only pose a threat to human health if it continues for a long period of time (see this post for more about the numbers).

There has unquestionably been a high demand for quick and accurate information – both about specific radiation levels and how to put those levels in their appropriate context. On March 16, Brumfiel tried to assess what the levels of radiation meant for the public:

NHK television was reporting .08 mSv/hr at 25 kilometres west-northwest of the site today. A back-of-the-envelope calculations makes that 700 mSv per year (simply: .08 mSv x 24 hours x 365 days).That is a serious dose, but not as bad as it initially sounds. For one thing, the radiation coming from Fukushima seems to be sporadic, so it won't stay at .08 mSv/hr for a long time. Additionally, you would only see the effects of that radiation if you were standing outside for a whole year.

More realistically, people will take cover to the greatest degree possible, reducing their exposure considerably. On top of that, iodine tablets and simple precautions for those outside (such as covering up, and removing clothing when moving indoors) will help a great deal. In this context .08 mSv/hr probably isn't much to worry about, though it may become an issue for rescue workers outside for long periods.

As I mentioned, in Tokyo, Japan's science ministry reported average rates of .000144 mSv/hr yesterday afternoon. That's double the background rate, but should residents of the capital be worried? No.

[original post begins below.]

The horror of Friday 11 March's earthquake and resulting tsunami near the east coast of Honshu, Japan, soon gave way to widespread panic as explosions rocked the Fukushima nuclear power plant. However, one community in the blogosphere seemed to be more measured in response to events unfolding at Fukushima – science bloggers.

Barry Brooks of bravenewclimate republished a lengthy post written by Josef Oehmen, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and originally published by Jason Morgan. Brooks and Morgan are supporters of nuclear power, and consider the mainstream coverage of the nuclear power plant “partial meltdown” to be overblown and full of errors. Oehmen gives his thoughts based only on what he has read in the media, but immediately seeks to put people at ease:

There was and will *not* be any significant release of radioactivity.

By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.

Comparisons have been drawn between Fukushima and Chernobyl already, although science bloggers have advised restraint. Image by Osakabe Yasuo, copyright Demotix (04/06/2009).

Comparisons have been drawn between Fukushima and Chernobyl already, although science bloggers have advised restraint. Image by Osakabe Yasuo, copyright Demotix (04/06/2009).

Serious, but overhyped

Echoing Dr. Oehmen's concerns that the situation at Fukushima is serious but still overhyped, David Ropeik writes a post at the Scientific American Guest Blog. He notes that the situation at the nuclear plant in Fukushima has been compared in the media not only to Chernobyl (in the Ukraine), but also the World War Two atomic blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan:

We know from studying the survivors of those bombings, who were bathed in horrific doses of high level radiation – far worse than anything that could come from the Daiichi plant (or that came out of Chernobyl) – that ionizing radiation from nuclear energy is a carcinogen, but a relatively weak one.

Ropeik lists nuclear power interests among his clients, and disclosed this fact in the post.

Also at the Scientific American Guest Blog, Rita King provides a valuable primer on what a “nuclear meltdown” really is and explains some of the differences between this incident and Chernobyl.  She also notes the often intractable views between nuclear power's supporters and its critics:

Opinions around nuclear energy tend to be binary, with industry proponents acting as if nothing could possibly go wrong while critics, terrified of nuclear apocalypse, remain convinced that old nuclear plants are time bombs.

Sharon Astyk of's Causabon's Book notes this attitude and suggests that this incident should have been foreseen and that contingency planning must play a greater role in our decisions:

I keep thinking about the word “inconceivable” in relationship to the terrible events in Japan – the earthquake, now upgraded to a 9, the subsequent tsunami and the nuclear events. As Nicole Foss's work has made clear, the Fukushima nuclear disaster is not a black swan – it follows on the heels of long warnings about the danger of building plants in such seismically sensitive places, and also after safety concerns within the plant itself. We know that the plant was not designed to handle such a major earthquake.

Nuanced conversation

Science bloggers continue to have a nuanced conversation about the merits of nuclear power. Leading the discussion are's Mike the Mad Biologist and James Hrynyshyn. Both bloggers step away from the hyperbole in the current coverage and try to compare the benefits of nuclear power to other steps societies could take to increase energy supply and decrease demand.

Mike the Mad Biologist suggests the nuclear industry move to develop an alternative form of nuclear power that uses thorium instead of uranium -while thorium creates several scientific challenges, it leaves less nuclear waste and is more abundant.  He also notes that people in the United States need to make some radical changes in the way they live their lives to make large-scale energy conservation possible:

One of the best ways to reduce the amount of stuff we have to light on fire is to move from single detached housing in areas with no efficient mass transit to apartments with access to mass transit (keep in mind that residential use and transporation account for about two-thirds of total energy consumption). In other words, we have to massively ‘desuburbanize’ and simultaneously ‘reurbanize.’

Since this scenario seems highly unlikely, Mike the Mad Biologist calls nuclear power “a second best option.”

Hrynyshyn suggests it's more appropriate to compare nuclear power with other “alternative” power options:

I'd rather we compared nuclear's risk and benefits against those of clean renewables. What's the worst-case scenario for a thermal solar power plant? Even a wind farm engineer's most terrifying nightmare seems like a powder compared with nuclear technology.

This post is part of our special coverage Japan Earthquake 2011.


  • There’s a great Q&A here from the Science Media Centre of Japan offering advice to citizens in Japan.

  • Hope things will get better in Japan

  • […] Science Bloggers Explain Fukushima · Global Voices […]

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    Hugs and best regards!

  • […] Japan and the rest of the world struggle to make sense of the devastating earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear scare, science bloggers are sharing facts to help explain what happened. Where science bloggers excel is […]

  • nhr

    Can I just point out that Dr. Oehmen is lying when he says that his blog entry is being republished and edited by “Nuclear Science and Engineering Blog at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.” That is an outright fabrication! is a private domain and completely unaffilialted with MIT despite a header description that purports it to be an MIT website. It is a private website hosted by a private company and only registred as a domain a couple of days ago, clearly to provide more false legitimacy to Dr. Oehmen’s blog entry after the withering criticism.

    This is an attempt at fraud and should be noted as such. Instead, we have articles all over the web saying that this is the “official MIT Nuclear Science and Technology Department” position on the issue.

  • Hi nhr – I have verified that Dr. Oehmen’s highly edited (one might say “re-written”) post is indeed published at an MIT blog. The blog is new, and maintained by students there. I notice that the URL in your comment has a typo – this may be a source of confusion.

    I also note that the URL resolves to – this may also be a source of confusion since the .com extension isn’t something you often see from educational institutions. I am quite familiar with MIT’s online presence and is their commonly used address – if you’re being directed to the .com address it’s because the University wants you to go there.

    Dr. Oehmen does work at MIT, though he is not a nuclear scientist. his MIT page can be found here:

    He is referring all inquiries to MIT’s public affairs department and they are saying Dr. Oehmen is not giving interviews at this time.

    Thanks very much for your comment – in the face of such criticism and with so much confusion, it is easy to get signals crossed…

  • ayaka kawagishi

    hello David, i read your post. then can i explain more in detal as a Japanese scientest ?
    as you know, we had a history, but i think this event won’t go on its same as nuclear bomb. and we also think \inconceivable\. my opinion is that event cleary cause nature.

    look at fukushima-prefecture, it occured little meltdown, i mean deformation of core.
    nothing occur core’s expolusion( also spreading of a part of fuel) likely Chernobyl. that is why i think there is some differences between fukushimas’ event and Chernobyl(also hiroshima,nagasaki).
    however fukushima reactors lost cooler systems, its still keep the soundness of vessel now.

  • ayaka kawagishi

    hello again David
    i would like to see this video, please…
    it said ”stop the hysteria”.

  • […] or not, that hasn’t kept it from panicking people as far away as the Philippines and Singapore.  Bad information travels as fast as good, […]

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