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Ukraine Is Banning ‘Communist Symbols’ and the Kremlin Is Peeved

Ukrainian government tries to abandon its Soviet legacy by banning the symbols of the communist regime. Images mixed by Anna Poludenko-Young.

Ukrainian government tries to abandon its Soviet legacy by banning the symbols of the communist regime. Images mixed by Anna Poludenko-Young.

Ukrainian authorities have moved to restrict the propaganda of Communist and Nazi regimes and their symbols in a bid to part with the country's communist past. Some Russian politicians believe this step is a big mistake.

The Ukrainian Parliament passed the legislation with a 56% majority vote on April 9, and the so-called “de-communization” bill, already signed by speaker of Parliament Volodymyr Groysman, is now waiting for final approval from President Petro Poroshenko.

What is being banned?
The law bans the propaganda of Nazi and Communist regimes and the use of their symbols in everything from street names and flags to monuments and plaques. More specifically, though, it is only the Soviet Communist regime of 1917-1991 (along with Hitler's Nazi regime) that will fall under the ban. This means the current Communist party of Ukraine, as well as the images and mentions of the founders of the communist ideology, Marx and Engels, will not be banned.

The “de-communization” legislation also declares the Communist government that ruled Ukraine during the Soviet era a criminal regime that “engaged in a policy of state terror.” However, despite some rumors, it doesn’t call for the destruction of monuments to the victims of World War II. The Ukrainian government has pledged to continue to take responsibility for and protect war memorials, military cemeteries, and historical marks that honor the memory of the war. Use of communist symbols is also allowed in history books and research papers.

First reactions
Russian officials have called the law an affront to history and a tool in the “struggle against the heroic past of the people of Ukraine.” At the same time, supporters of the bill insist that it is a part of Western-oriented reforms and that it doesn’t contradict international norms.

Not everyone shares that opinion. The opponents of the new law, a group of almost 50 western scholars, as well as a few Ukrainians and one Russian, published an open letter to President Poroshenko calling on him to veto the bill. They argue that the content and spirit of the law contradict the right to free speech.

Over the past 15 years, Vladimir Putin’s Russia has invested enormous resources in the politicization of history. It would be ruinous if Ukraine went down the same road, however partially or tentatively. Any legal or ‘administrative’ distortion of history is an assault on the most basic purpose of scholarly inquiry: pursuit of truth.

Among other things, the new law also provides for opening the previously secret KGB archives stored in Ukraine. Markian Lubkivsky, an advisor to the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), said that the SBU is prepared to give almost a million communist regime documents to the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, a state-sponsored historical research body, for further investigation under the new open access policy.

Служба безпеки України не буде хранителем таємниць комуністичного режиму або будь-якого іншого режиму. Згідно із законом, який був прийнятий, СБУ передасть близько мільйона документів репресивних органів комуністичного режиму […] для того, щоб інститут досліджував, обробив і надав відкритий доступ до цих документів всім, хто бажає ознайомитися з цими документами.

The Security Service of Ukraine won’t be the keeper of the communist regime’s or any other regime’s secrets. According to the new law, the SBU will give approximately one million documents created by the repressive organs of the communist regime […] so the Institute can study, process and make them openly available to everyone who wishes to see these documents.

Ukrainian response
Some members of the Ukrainian online community took the news about the new legislation as a call for action. They started creating Facebook and Vkontakte de-communization watchdog groups for their geographic regions. There they encourage people to share information about the street and town names that relate to former Soviet or communist leaders and thus, according to the new legislation, might have to be changed.

Joining the online de-communization discussion, Yuriy Lutsenko, a Ukrainian politician and former Minister of Internal Affairs, published an old photograph of a woman taking down a street sign reading “Adolf Hitler Street” on Facebook.
Lutsenko about de-communization

This photo was taken in 1944—I dedicate it to all the opponents of the new de-communization law. […] The old “song” about rewriting history is a favorite tool of those who raped this history. Stalino became Donetsk, Zhdanov was renamed to Mariupol, Voroshylovograd to Luhansk. These cities were renamed and it didn’t result in the end of the world. […]

Russian and pro-Russian opinions
Russian state-controlled media and political figures often present the Soviet communist past as a time of economic stability, social wellbeing, and military strength. Not surprisingly, the Kremlin’s reaction to Ukraine’s “de-communization” bill was highly critical.

Sergei Lavrov, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, said the law would have a highly negative effect on the peace-keeping negotiations around Eastern Ukraine and suggested that further “glorification of Nazis and deglorification of the real heroes of the Great Patriotic War” risked ruining the Minsk peace deals.

Lavrov was likely referring to the part of the law that provides “public recognition” to anyone who fought for Ukrainian independence in the 20th century, which would include veterans of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). These were partisan armies that at various times fought both Nazi and Soviet exploitation. The bill expands the scope of war veterans being celebrated to everyone who fought the Nazi forces during World War II, which means members of the old Ukrainian Partisan Army are now to be honored alongside Soviet Army veterans.

It didn’t take long for pro-Russian leaders from the separatist-controlled Eastern part of Ukraine to express their criticism of the new law. Alexander Zakharchenko, the head of the unrecognized Donetsk People’s Republic, has called the “de-communization” bill a farce that could set an “irreversible process in motion which could lead to the complete collapse of the country.”

The path forward
One of the amendments in the “de-communization” bill renames the Great Patriotic War (the name used in the Soviet/post-Soviet space for the past 70 years) to the Second World War (as WWII is commonly known in the West). As Ukraine tries to sort out its history as a sovereign state, the new bill is yet another step by the post-Maidan Ukrainian government to part with Soviet legacy which they believe inhibits the country's European future.

  • soupie campbel

    ukraine must free itself from russia,s symbols and names, plus putins lies about battles and wars, victory and freedom to ukraine, eu and nato membership to follow,

  • Patriot

    Let’s install only our patriotic symbols, hurray!!!

  • dasha _

    Rewriting of history.
    And of course, GREAT respect to the freedom of speech.
    Fantastic law, by which if you are denying “crimes of the communist regime” – i.e. if you aren’t agree with new government’s version of history – you can be jailed for five years.
    If you are using flag of your former motherland(which most people of Ukraine once loved, and many still love) – you can be jailed for five years.
    Honestly, it is disgusting, and all praising of it is disgusting.
    And it looks especially hypocritically, when it praised by the West, who is claiming that it is for democracy and for freedom of speech – and meantime fully supports totalitarian laws.

    I wish, some day current American flag will be banned in America, except for history books and research papers, then they will know how it feels. (Or Polish in Poland, if it was not american, but their idea).

    • Guest

      Where are you going to use the flag of the USSR? Where a modern German would put the flag of the Third Reich? Do you remember how often have you used any bolshevik symbol during, say, past 5 years?

      • dasha _

        Don’t compare USSR and Nazi, it is completely different.
        Attempt to equate them – is rewriting of history, and laws, which ban any discussions about it – are completely cinical.

        >Do you remember how often have you used any bolshevik symbol during, say, past 5 years?
        1000 times. I have old soviet badges liyng near me right now. I used the hammer and sickle hundreds of times in the internet. (And no, i’m not even communist. And
        for communists it is even worse. Ah, i forgot, democratic and free
        Ukraine banned communistic party, so it doesn’t matter.)

        • AnotherGuest

          Keep dancing around your idols, then.

          • dasha _

            I told you, i’m not even communist, and they aren’t my idols.
            Still, USSR is my former country, and hammer and sickle is national emblem of my former country, who has the right to ban using of it?

          • MC Hammer&Sickle

            Вот вам молот, вот вам серп
            Это наш советский герб.
            Хочешь жни, а хочешь куй –
            Всё равно получишь…ничего

            A loose translation would be:

            Hammer and sickle – there they are,
            Emblem of the USSR.
            Smith or peasant, work is good –
            Anyway you will be screwed.

        • Depp

          USSR and the Nazis were literally the same, dasha. And all this wave of hate and demonizing of Ukraine and of the West in the Russian media, the whole nationalistic expansionistic tendencies (visible in the decrying of the Soviet Union, in the rehabilitation and glorification of Stalin – a vicious murderer, in the annexation of Crimea and occupation of Eastern Ukraine and disguised war against the country, and in the ominous military posturing of Russia along its western borders and the Arctic) create the impression Russia is today as xenophobic, ultranationalistic, militaristic and expansionist as Nazi Germany during the 30s and the 40s.

          Nazis are again in the 21st century here, at the gates of Europe, threatening from Moscow to invade and occupy free and sovereign nations which were unfortunately onceunder the russian boots. The chief Nazi is Putin.

          • dasha _

            >USSR and the Nazis were literally the same
            No, they weren’t. I say again – it is rewriting of history.

            i will not comment about waves of hate or comparing today’s Russia with
            Hitler’s Germany, because it has no relation to theme of the new
            totalitarian laws.

    • Depp

      “Don’t compare USSR and Nazi, it is completely different.” USSR and Nazi were extraordinarily similar. Ideologically both regimes are communist: the Nazis were called “National Socialists”, the Soviets were also socialists. The nazis had a nationalist blend, the Russian communists were disguised nationalists and officially internationalists, but both dictatorships were expanionist imperialist powers. USSR and the Nazis collaborated to split Eastern Europe among themselves (See the Ribbentrop – Molotow Pact from 23 August 1939), thus paving the way to the WWII and occupied, destroyed or annexed parts of all the national states in the region. Finland, the Baltic States, Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia – all suffered a dire fate at the hands of two equally criminal heads of states: the communist Stalin and the nazi Hitler.

      At the end of the war the eastern European nations just changed a ruthless occupation (Nazi) with one more evil than the first. Imperial Communist Russia occupied Eastern Europe, took all the annexed territories under the monstruosRibbentrop Molotow Pact and imposed communist regimes under NKVD/KGB supervision. The USSR killed through deportation, starvation, mass executions and gulags som 50 to 60 millions people, mostly non Russian ethnics: Ukraininans, Poles, Baltic ethnic, Romanians, Finns, etc. There is really no difference between USSR and Nazi Germany, and history must do justice to the victimes of both criminal regimes and countries.

      • dasha _

        Listen, my english isn’t good enough to have full discussion on history.
        So, i will just say some points.
        1) The main problem with Nazi wasn’t expansionism (which was typical for many regimes), and not socialism(which is not bad at all), but ideology of national superiority and possibility of genocid of some nations, for the profit of other nations.
        It was absolutely uncharacteristically for Soviet regime – Soviet people sincerely believed that all nations and races are brothers.

        2) About Ribbentrop – Molotow Pact – before accepting it – Stalin tried to make anti-Hitler alliance with countries of Europe, but was refused.
        Also, Europe made deal with Hitler even before USSR – see Munich Agreement.

        3) About Soviet occupation, more evil, than Nazi – Nazi were going to genocide most of the Eastern Europe – see Generalplan Ost.
        And USSR maybe occupied Eastern Europe countries, but still didn’t genocide it, and helped to them with oil, money and resources, as could.
        (Also, Ukrainians and Belarussians – it is Russian ethnic, they were historically part of Russia, and most of them didn’t considered themself occupied. )

        4) About how much USSR killed. 50-60 millions of people? Yes, of course. Probably, personally by Stalin, lol.
        How do you think, it could be, if:

        In 1926 USSR’s population was 140mln, 77mlns of them were Russians.

        In 1939 USSR’s population was 170mln, 99mln of them were Russians, 28mln
        were Ukrainians, 5mlns Belarussians, then Uzbeks, Tatars, Kazahs, Jews, etc. + 20 mln which lived on territories, which were annexed after.

        In 1959 USSR’s population was 208mln, 114 mln were Russians, 37 mln were Ukrainians, 8mln Belarussians, etc.

        USSR lost in WWII 25mln of people. Deaths weren’t really proportionally distributed between nations(western territories suffered more), but almost proportionally.

        So, if you count it, you will see, that:

        a) The couldn’t be killed 50-60mln people, mostly non-russian ethnic, because population of people of non-russian ethnic was 90mlns at all(in 1940s, and less – in 1920-1930), and you just had to kill almost all of them.

        b) Even if suppose, that russian people were killed as non-russian – there still coundn’t be 50-60 mlns, it is too big percent for 170-200 mlns of people. Even 25mlns, who died in WWII – it is too big, and generations of our people remember it, and if you add 50-60mlns – it is just unrealistic.

        So, it is just another fairy tails and rewriting of history.

        I’m not justify Stalin, although, but USSR wasn’t only Stalin, and Stalin died long ago, and there were pretty free and sometimes even happy years after.

        And all historical discussion actually doesn’t matter in context of the fact that Ukraine actually banned them, it adopted law, which bans “denial of the crimes of Soviet Regime”. And now it can talk about 50-60 mlns of killed by Stalin personally, and be sure, that all opponents will not say a word against it, even if it is bullshit.

        • Depp

          1. “Expansionism (…) national superiority (…) and possibility of genocid of some nations, for the profit of other nations (…) were absolutely uncharacteristically for Soviet regime – Soviet people sincerely believed that all nations and races are brothers.”

          Well, tell that to the millions of Ukrainians from Eastern Ukraine exterminated through deliberate famine in the 1930s, while Stalin exported grains to America… Tell that to the hundreds of thousands of deported Romanians from Bessarabia, Balts from the baltics, minorities from Caucasus etc. What about the occupation of Karelia from Finland, the forced annexation of the Baltic countries (1940), of half of Poland (17 September 1939), of Bessarabia (June 1940)? What about the extzermination by NKVD in Katyn of 20.000 Polish officers? What about the massive colonization with Russian ethnics of Eastern Ukraine, Bessarabien, Eastern Poland (that even today is not Polish territory anymore). What about the tens of thousands of Jews decimated silently by Stalin after WWII?

          Tell me that was not imperialism, expansionism, and extermination of Non-Russians in some regions amounting to intention of genocide. I don’t speak about the marxist-socialist ideology which is clearly one of solidarity between people and positive social development. I am speaking here about the reality on the ground. What really happened in the Soviet Union was quite different than what most Russians liked to believe.

          2. Stalin hated the liberal democracies in the West as much as Hitler did, and as much as Putin does today. The Russian and the German government needed only 2 or three days of negotiations to reach that criminal pact. It seemed like they were very happy to make such territorial gains against neighbouring nations, together being able to ignore the Western security guarantees to Poland. Don’t tell me the peace loving Russians wanted alliance with the West. They sincerely believed the Communist Revolution will eventually wipe out the Western capitalist regimes and the USSR, i.e. Russia, will triumph.

          Did you know what the German army discovered in June/July 1941 as it took the Russians through surprise? The Soviet army military plans entailed no defence strategies, but only offensive ones. The USSR wanted to attack Naz Germany by surprise a few weeks later. The Bolsheviks wanted to expell both Nazi Germany and the western democracies out of Europe. The Russian military capaign was planned a few weeks later, but the nazis twarted them.

          The Münich Agreement was made in the hope that Hitler will stop his expansionist drive, once the historical territorial claims of Germany were largely satisfied. Please note the Münich Agreement was not a criminal undertaking, since France and Britain did not occupied and annexed countries following stipulations in the Agreement.

          3. Again in the Annexed territories, following the Ribbentrop Molotow Pact, Russia did commit genocidal acts. Also in the Ukraine in the 1930s. Moreover The Ukrainians are not Russian ethnics. Historically they come from the Kieven Rus state, which is several centuries older than the Russian state around Moscow. Yes, the Ukrainians are slavic people like the Russians and the Poles, but they have a separate national identity and tried to defend it during the XIXth century during the age of nationalism. That is why the Tsarist authorities supressed the Ukrianians and their language and culture during the XIXth century. The Soviet Union continued the anti-ukraininan politics, bringing it to new levels.The Holodomor, which cost the lives of millions, was a true genocide of Ukrainians in Eastern Ukraine.

          3. B. Yes Hitler wanted to exterminate the Poles and the Russians in Europe or at least to move them to Siberia. And this is genocide in intention. I don’t want to defend such a colossal criminal. However Communist Russia was not better in any sense.

          4. USSR killed 50-60 millions of people along its 71 years of existence, not at once. The birth rates were still very high in the USSR, which means that many tens of millions of killings were obscured by the statitstics of a fast growing population.

          Several millions of these victims were also Russians (remember, the communist gorvernment was a terror regime), but the bulk of them were of other nationality. At the same time the Russians did not target all the ethnic minorities, but only those who saw the Russians as occupants and wanted a separate country or to go back to their mother country from which they had been forcefully separated: some of the Ukrainians, Baltic peoples, Romanians, Finns, Poles, Georgians etc. And yes, rest assured Stalin directed and was completely aware of the genocidal deeds, even if he did not personally killed them.

          What happens now is not a rewriting of history. For decades the Russians imposed their emelished history version all over the world, and the communist regimes, which themselves commited serious crimes in Eastern Europe and were not popular among the population, were not in the mood to undermine the base of their legitimacy by speaking the truth. The time comes for us, the opressed peoples in Eastern Europe to tell the world the truth!

          The Russians did liberate themselves from the nazi threat, but in Eastern Europe they were the threat as well, and occupied many territories and killed millions of Europeans as Hitler did to the Jews and the Russians before. These are hard facts, not fairytales. And you, the Russian nation are not even ready to recognise your crimes against humanity. Instead you feel like the most unloved and misunderstood nation in the entire world. What cosmic bigotry!!! The rewriters of history want their distorted narrative to rule the reading of history world wide. But that is impossible. Tens of millions of victims would turn in their graves.

          In this context, the banning of communist and nazi symbols makes perfect sense everywhere in the world and especially for the Ukrainians which are so insidiously aggressed by the Russian state. This is not totalitarianism, nor fascism but a late historical justice.

          • dasha _

            All you said is wrong and can be easy disproved, but i told you, my english isn’t good enough to have full discussion, so i will answer only to the main thing, which is

            > For decades the Russians imposed their emelished history version all
            over the world, and the communist regimes, which themselves commited
            serious crimes in Eastern Europe and were not popular among the
            population, were not in the mood to undermine the base of their
            legitimacy by speaking the truth. The time comes for us, the opressed
            peoples in Eastern Europe to tell the world the truth!

            Yes. That is problem. Not with crimes of USSR, but with the fact that for many of countries of Eastern Europe – it is very convinient to make up and greatly exaggerate those crimes – to have possibility look like a victim, to have possibility to scare their people with THREAT FROM THE EAST and justify their poor domestic policy, to justify their collaborating with Nazi, to find their national identity in opposing Russia etc.

            And THAT is why they are so afraid of discussions of history – so afraid, that they even ban it. Because they know, that if people will discuss it – people will easy prove their lie.

            And you cannot justify it – people with clear conscience will not ban discussions on history.
            Also, about ban of Soviet symbols – how about that most of people in South-Eastern Ukraine(and in Ukraine at all actually) – oppose it? How their new government has the right to ban it, if most people aren’t agree?

          • Depp

            As long as Russia behaves like a terrorist state against other sovereign states copying the methods of Stalin/USSR and Hitler/Nazis, the crimes of USSR are a very serious issue. Only a sincere recognition by Russia of its past crimes, as Germany recognizes today its own crimes, and a public apology for all the terrible sufferings it caused to other nations, will be a guarantee that Russia will finally respect the international law, the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all the countries it so savagely aggressed in Eastern Europe.

            Not the Eastern European states are exaggerating Soviet Union’s crimes like ethnic cleansing, territorial expansionism through aggression, intimidation and war, forced russification and colonization of occuppied territory, genocide. All this things have been LIVED and told us by our grandparents (which happens not to be Ukrainians). The Ribbentrop Molotow Pact is reality, as were the gulags, the mass deportations, the mass killings, the starvation of millions of Ukrainians etc. I don’t need my goverment to tell me what happened.

            We don’t need opposing Russia to establish our identity. Don’t think of yourself so big.

            As for collaborating with Nazis, what can I say… If you are squashed between Nazis from Berlin and Communist Nazis from Moscow, as a Pole, Finn, Romanian, Baltic or Ukrainian you have to choose between two plagues. There were truly desperate times for nations trying to servive between two blood-dirsty genocidal dictators. Some chose to collaborate with the criminal Stalin, other with the criminal Hitler. Given the atrocities committed by the Red Army and the Wehrmacht and thee deperation of the peoples affected I couldn’t condemn those who looked for salvation either to Nazi Germany, or to Soviet Russia. So, don’t think the Bolshevik Russians were better than the Nazi Germans, because it’s a delusion.

            As for the contested law in Ukraine, both Nazi and Soviet symbols are prohibited in public space, that is as means of propaganda. However a historical discussion about the USSR is permitted since you can use its symbols in scientific articles and history books.
            There is nothing wrong to not allow monuments, plaques and flags of a criminal state, be it Soviet Union or Nazi Germany.

            With that law Ukraine hit a sensitive point. It is dangerous to allow the symbols of Russian imperialism in a context of an epansionist Nazi Russia using extensive propaganda, and flexing its military muscles while looking for the next victim to kill (Ukraine, Moldova, the Baltics, Kazahstan, Georgia…). Last year for example, Putin made a comment that Kasachstan is not really a state having no such historical tradition. The Kazachs didn’t agree, but they have got the warning: they could be next (after Georgia and Ukraine).

            So, dear Sasha, we in Eastern Europe know what Russia is capable of, and that is why we are worried. Our historical experience, not the national governments, tells us to keep you at bay at any costs. If the US offers us a security we will stick to that like to the Holly Grail. We are a solid part of NATO, not because we are lackeys of the Americans as the Russian politicians believe, but because we don’t trust you to keep your boots in your home. Not America did occuppy our countries and annexed our national territories, Russia did.

          • KP

            Excellent analysis Depp!

          • dasha _

            > Only a sincere recognition by Russia of its past crimes, as Germany
            recognizes today its own crimes, and a public apology for all the
            terrible sufferings it caused to other nations, will be a guarantee that
            Russia will finally respect the international law, the territorial
            integrity and sovereignty of all the countries it so savagely aggressed
            in Eastern Europe.

            Oh lol. “SAY SORRY RUSSIA (And pay reparations)”. Such demands are already theme for jokes in Russia.

            Listen, we will NOT recognize lie. And what is talking some Eastern Europe states now – is lie, and it is easy proved with historical data.
            So, don’t even dream about imposing your version of history on all world.

            As for the contested law in Ukraine – again – most of Ukrainians are against it. Who has the right to impose this law on them? Name me people, who has this right?
            Nobody has. So, those, who impose this law – are acting against people will, and it will end actually with reaction of pro-russian moods(as always, when authorities are acting against people will – there are reaction).
            So, it is maybe even good for Russia. Let’s watch, what will be next. Last time Yushenko ended with 20% level of support to the end of his term.

          • Depp

            “Oh lol. “SAY SORRY RUSSIA (And pay reparations)”. Such demands are already theme for jokes in Russia. Listen, we will NOT recognize lie.”

            This is exactly the kind of “might is right” arrogant attitude that hinders Russia to come to terms with its criminal past and reconcile with its neighbours. Here it is not about reparations, but about promoting a space of peace and security, and mutual trust and cooperation, as it happens within the EU borders. About were the lie hides, here applyes the saying: when two people say you’re drunk, then you have to go to sleep. That is, when Russia’s narrative is contradicted by all its neighbours, then there must be some truth in their critique. Even Ms. Merkel told Putin during her visit on 10th of May: (Source:

            Thhe same perky attitude has Japan toward its neighbours it occuppied during the WWII. And this poisons until today both the political relations betweeen Russia and Eastern Europe, and between Japan and South-East Asian countries plus China (South Korea, Vietnam etc.).

            How do you know that the majority of Ukrainians sppose the anticommunist and antinazi law? If it were so, on such a sensitive issue there would have been massive demonstration in Ukraine. On the contrary, I believe the majority of Ukrainians are happy to see symbols of Russian colonial expansionism removed from the political scene. In one point you were right: the Russian aggressian against Ukraine and the Russian determination to not let the country choose its own future as a sovereign nation has fuelled more than ever the Ukrainian identity as opposed to Russian oppressors.

            About reparations. This is not an actual theme in Eastern Europe.

            “Don’t even dream about imposing your version of history on all world.”

            Actually the Russian version of history is outdated and nobody outside Russia, some marginal communist movements and its diaspora believe the Russian propaganda. Look at Merkels declaration as a proof (“I would like also to recall that the end of World War II did not bring democracy and freedom for all in Europe”.). See also the numerous official declarations from Poland, Romania, the US, and the Baltic Countries in this sense. The Russian history variant is already linked to its ultranationalist quasi fascist view of the world.

  • ананимас

    I agree that soviet symbolics should be banned and not only in Ukraine but in the whole world! We should not forget the Stalin’s war crimes.

  • Visitor

    Mr Nemtsov’s report about the Russian intervention in Ukraine. The text is in Russian.

  • Arctic_Slicer

    Poroshenko should veto this bill; it’s unnecessary, anti-democratic and cost the state millions of dollars it does not have to implement.

  • wimroffel

    In a true democracy history books aren’t written by the politicians. They come from open discussion among the population.

  • Archi

    Soviet Union depress the Ukraine for long time as I read it from
    uk custom essay so I’m glad that this is happening. Go for glory!

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