Mainstream media often fails to provide broader and deeper coverage of social, cultural, political and environmental issues occurring in any of the eight lusophone countries. But citizen media from this vast linguistic region that spreads across the globe, has been there to fill some of the gaps and to fuel public awareness.
Such has been the case of the coverage of development policies adopted by the Brazilian government, and the consequences that directly affected river-dwellers, ‘caboclos’ and indigenous communities across the country, and particularly in the Amazon. The construction of the Belo Monte Dam  in the Xingu river, has perhaps become one of the strongest causes at the national level and beyond borders. In October, Sany Kalapalo, a young indigenous and a Xingu activist , told us how she makes use of the Internet as a tool to disclose indigenous culture and to mobilize people towards her campaign to protect the Volta Grande do Xingu region in the state of Pará.
In November, the Cry of Resistance of the Guarani Kaiowá  quickly spread from the village of Pyelito Key/Mbarakay, in the town of Iguatemi, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, to a worldwide wave of protests in solidarity with the indigenous rights for their lands .
Throughout the year, a series of articles on Brazilian migration has taken us in journeys we don't embark upon through mainstream media.
From a “Dekasegi ” bridge-blogger in Japan for the Brazilian community after the earthquake, to the 93 year-old Syrian migrant  living in the state of São Paulo, passing through the history of the “Brazilebanese “, or Brazilians from Lebanon, and other stories. Brazilian immigration policy itself faces new challenges . In December, immigrant associations in Sao Paulo organized a rally demanding more rights with regard to the law  of the country. Brazilian emigration too has been under debate, particularly through the lens of how Brazilian women are seen abroad , after highly criticized statements from the President of the Portuguese Bar Association at the end of the year, who said that what Brazil exports the most to Portugal is prostitutes.
To calm down the waters surrounding that debate, and bringing a bit of music to the mix, something that Brazilians have also exported this year was Michel Telo's hit ‘Oh if I Catch You’ song , whose official video  on YouTube has already reached an impressive 470 million visits. Although Telo's major worldwide success didn't reach the numbers of Gangnam style, it did indeed spark a global phenomenon of “Telobalization” at the beginning of the year, with the appropriation of the song for new versions in dozens of different languages. It also attracted some critics due to the arguable quality of Telo's work, and whether or not it should represent Brazilian culture abroad.
On culture and literacy, we highlight the Bicicloteca, a bicycle that carries a small library  and free solar-powered internet access to the homeless of the city of São Paulo, and a creative writing competition  promoted by the young Cape Verdean journalist Odair Varela on his blog over the course of seven weeks.
Platforms for civic participation
Interesting initiatives for civic participation that bridge the offline and the online worlds arose in Mozambique in 2012.
The People's Wall of Maputo , an authentic ”offline Facebook wall” in the extensive outer wall of @Verdade newspaper ‘s building, allows for any citizen to express his or her complaints in a public and open way. Messages are later transcribed to @Verdade's media outlets, such as their print newspaper but also Facebook page and website.
A local diving school in Tofo, Bitonga Divers , has been raising awareness on the need to defend marine life against overfishing at one of Mozambique's most important tourist beaches.
Whereas in Guinea Bissau, where there is a huge Internet accessibility gap, a digital inclusion project called CENATIC – a computer center featured by Rising Voices  in April – unfortunately had to shut down at the end of the year due to the high costs to support it. CENATIC was launched by a local NGO and aimed at providing more affordable access and support to individuals and organizations interested in exploring how a better connection can benefit their work.
The future awaits
In the political arenas, 2012 was a year of presidential  and parliamentary  elections in East Timor , municipal elections  in Brazil and local elections  in Cape Verde. In Angola, Eduardo dos Santos was re-elected after 33 years in power. The country's complex path of development through the lens of citizen media is summarized in a separate post, Year of Change in Angola, But Everything Stays the Same .
By the end of November , São Tomé and Principe plunged into a political crisis , and in Guinea Bissau another military coup d'etat  toppled the government in April 2012. A post from October  reads:
While the international institutions express “concern” and conduct meetings, the people of Guinea-Bissau have little outlet for their fears and frustrations.
In Portugal, there were plenty of protests and two general strikes against the austerity measures  in the European economic crisis  scenario which develops into harder life conditions for the general population. The most participated demonstration took place in September under the motto “Screw Troika! We Want Our Lives” .
Among the multiplicity of conventional uses of digital platforms for activism, one of the most curious characters that caught our attention early in the year is in fact a 75 year old priest and writer called Mário Pais de Oliveira . He religiously uses social networks  to share his very particular – and disruptive – thoughts on current events, and has hundreds of videos on Youtube and thousands of friends on Facebook. We finish this roundup of the year with a simple quote from one of his subversive homilies . Whatever 2013 brings:
We must come up with new ways to transform society