Morocco: Is the ‘Allegiance Ceremony’ a Thing of the Past?

The bay'a is the name of the annual “loyalty” ceremony where dignitaries from across Morocco pledge allegiance to King Mohammed VI. Critics [fr] of the ceremony decry a “shameful show of servility and a display of archaism,” whilst proponents contend it establishes a symbolic contract between the ruler and the Moroccan people.

Originally, the bay'a is an act of allegiance to the successors of Prophet Mohammed. The Moroccan King claims to be descendant from the Prophet and derives part of his authority from his supposedly sacred genealogy.

Abdelilah Benkirane is the serving prime minister. In a statement he made while he was still part of the opposition, he described the bay'a as “shameful ritual” and “a thing of the past,” fueling speculation as to whether the King will decide to cancel this year's ceremony.

But much to the chagrin of bay'a‘s opponents, on Tuesday, August 21, the ceremony did take place (video posted by hespresslive):

The bay'a follows a strict protocol whereby notables and elected representatives present themselves before the King. The monarch, cloaked in a golden robe, parades on horseback, protected by his personal guard, all whilst being covered by an umbrella which, according to commentators [fr], conveys the cosmic symbol of the monarchy. Dignitaries then bow before him, loudly praising his status as “Commander of the Faithful,” before retreating deferentially.

Many followed the event on Twitter like OnlyZineb who tweets:

There's a degrading allegiance ceremony going on right now in morocco where officials bow to the king like slaves to a master #TwittoBayaa

On Facebook, over 1,000 people pledged to gather on Wednesday, the day after the bay'a, at a “public celebration of loyalty to freedom and dignity”.

One member of the group writes:

I am getting ready for another celebration in Morocco, an alternative celebration in which I will declare my full allegiance to the Moroccan people. I will do so with an unshakable sense of honor, with the heightened consciousness of my full Moroccan citizenship and with my irreducible human dignity; I will do it as would any free citizen, standing up tall, proud and dignified

The ritual is also a matter of concern for blogger Larbi, who writes [fr]:

Mardi […] lorsque les images des prosternations feront le tour du monde, beaucoup de Marocains vivront l’instant comme un moment d’humiliation nationale.

On Tuesday, when images of the prostrations will travel around the world, many Moroccans will live the moment as one of national humiliation.

Reda disagrees. He writes [fr]:

je [me prosterne] a chaque fois que je rencontre mes parents […] sans que cela ne soit accompagne d’aucune dégradation a ma personne [certains esprits trop occidentalisés y verront de l'humiliation pas moi]

I bow before my parents each time I see them, without it being accompanied by any feeling of self-degradation. Some minds, too Westernized, will see in this humiliation. Not me.

The bay'a is a ritual rife with political symbols. It establishes a relationship of hierarchical power at the center of which sits the monarch. Ahmed thinks the ceremony is a reminder of the power relations between the people and an all-powerful, unaccountable monarch. He writes [ar]:

أعتقد أن محمد السادس أضاع على نفسه فرصة عند توليه “العرش” عند مشارف القرن الواحد والعشرين، أن يكون “ملكا مواطنا”، بقطع تلك العادات المشينة بكرامة الإنسان من ركوع وتقبيل اليد وأيضا ألقاب التعظيم والتمجيد..

I think that Mohammed VI missed the opportunity, when he came to the throne at the dawn of the 21st century, to become a “citizen king”, to get rid of those degrading and shameful rituals including bowing, hand-kissing and the idolisation…

For the latest updates on the alternate “ceremony” activists are planning to stage in front of the Moroccan parliament today, follow the hashtag #TwittoBayaa on Twitter.


  • Junoon

    I think those who oppose the bayaa are in blind about what really plagues this country and what the real people, those who don’t go on facebook and don’t engage in largely fringe debates like this one, need and expect. This whole “protest” is for an outside audience consumption, which in my opinion makes it emptier and further meaningless, and in failing to garner popular support, it only cuts itself from the 99% of Moroccans. By all means, Mr Larbi from his Parisian flat is entitled to his loud anti monarchic rant, that doesn’t mean he has anything of consequence to say here in the bled he quit.

  • […] the center of Moroccan life for centuries. However, the recent controversy over the bay’a, or ceremony of allegiance to the king, might be saying something different. In which case, Marc Lynch’s words should serve as a […]

  • Grimm Warden

    What absolute nonsense, have you no self-respect for yourself and you’re country?Backwards traditions like this are a disgrace to Morocco, you say those who opppose the bayaa are blind and protest only because of foreign influence. Sorry but you’re wrong, because a large portion of Moroccans in Morocco and abroad have finally woken up and realized that we live in the 21st century and don’t have to put up with seeing our government officials and representatives grovel to a man whose only legitimate claim to political and legal power lay solely in the fact he was born. Sycophants like you only represent a status quo force that have done nothing but justify actions and polices you should consider insulting to the integrity of modern Moroccan society.

    • Junoon

      Yeah? And who exactly appointed your sorry ass as the protector and defender of Moroccan pride or whatever you feel so high and mighty and righteous about? Get over yourself. Sycophant, indeed. Well, I have nothing to add, one year on, I stand completely by my opinion, and I think I have been partly vindicated. But let’s just wait and see where your, and your ilk’s, useless and frankly pathetic head banging will lead. Have your little vendetta against the monarchy if you like, by all means, continue tilting at windmills, but don’t act like you’re superior because of your opinion, or that you have the absolute truth, or that you have more integrity that I, because you know what, I have my hands in the dirt everyday and I do my fair chair to better my society and my country and hell if I will take condescension and insult from an internet troll for expressing my opinion.

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