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Madagascar : Bloggers react to Red Saturday's bloodshed

Since riots and lootings claimed fifty dead in Madagascar on January 26, the situation has become bleaker. Saturday, February 07 was an even bloodier day. Dubbed “Red Saturday” by some, it saw the presidential guard fire upon a crowd of protesters who had gathered outside the Presidential palace of Ambohitsirohitra.

The crowd had marched to the palace where it wanted to install Monja Roindefo. Roindefo had minutes before been nominated “Prime Minister” by Andry Rajoelina, himself proclaimed “President”, by the protestors that started demonstrating in December, when Andry Rajoelina's TV station was shut down by the Ravalomanana government. The protests have since become violent, resulting in lootings and riots, and with its supporters demanding Ravalomanana's resignation.

Among the victims of Red Saturday was Ando Ratovonirina, a 26 year old cameraman for the television station RTA. He is no stranger to the Malagasy Global Voices team, as he was the one who reported on citizen media in Antananarivo, as encouraged by FOKO, a Rising Voices grantee.

Ando

 

Bloggers have reacted strongly to the news, struggling to understand what circumstances led Malagasies to fire upon each other. Bloggers discuss who bears final responsibility for the massacre: those who incited, then led, demonstrators to the presidential palace, knowing that it was marked a “red zone” and that the soldiers there would have liberty to fire upon anyone violating the “red zone”, therefore creating “martyrs” for a protest movement running out of steam; or those who gave the orders to shoot.

“Pour provoquer la sortie de l’impasse créée par une auto-proclamation, les tenants de la prise de pouvoir insurrectionnelle emmènent la foule marcher sur un Palais présidentiel. Classés zones rouges, ces bâtiments sont protégés par un régime de protection spéciale qui expose les contrevenants au pire.
Quel que soit le Président en fonction, quel que soit le Palais concerné, quel que soit l’opposant qui mène la foule, quelle que soit la cause à défendre, quels que soient les militaires, les règles sont immuables : on ne peut impunément pénétrer dans un Palais d’Etat.”

“To induce an exit to the impasse created by their self proclamation, the insurrectionists led the crowd to a Presidential palace. Those buildings are protected by a special protection status which exposes trespassers to the worst.
Regardless of who is the sitting President, of which Palace may be involved, of who may be the opposition leader leading the crowd, the cause to be defended, or the soldiers involved, the rules are immutable: one cannot enter a state palace with impunity.”

Solofo, Avylavitra and Barijaona were eyewitnesses.

Solofo posts pictures of before and after the shootings and pointedly wants his readers to notice a certain man wearing a grey tie and black suit. The same man is apparently shown in a video posted on topmada.com .

Hitifitra hono izy… Tsy misy vahoaka mihemotra izany eo.”

“They say they are going to shoot… The people will not retreat.”

Barijaona :

“J'étais persuadé que tout avait été négocié à l'avance, que la foule resterait gentiment à distance, que seule une petite délégation entrerait à l'intérieur des grilles du palais et que c'est cette délégation qui demanderait ensuite à la foule de se disperser.
J'étais trop loin pour savoir ce qui s'est passé dans la foule peu avant que le cordon de sécurité ne lâche. Si un responsable du mouvement a laissé entendre qu'on pouvait “y aller”, sa responsabilité est énorme.
Je ne peux parler que de ce que j'ai vu et entendu de mes propres yeux, mais ai trouvé étonnant que Andry Rajoelina et Monja Roindefo soient restés à l'écart des délégations négociant l'entrée dans les grilles du palais.”

“I was convinced that all had been negotiated in advance, that the crowd would remain at a polite distance, that only a small delegation would enter inside the gates of the palace, and that this delegation would then ask the crowd to disperse. I was too far away to see what happened in the crowd before the security barrier was gave way. If one of the mass protest managers had led the crowd to believe that they could go in, his responsibility is enormous. I can only talk about what I have seen and heard, but I have found it astonishing that both Andry Rajoelina and Monja Roindefo have stayed away from delegations negotiating their entry past the gates of the palace.”

Avylavitra wonders if laws are void during exceptional times like these:

“Satria tokoa mantsy na aiza na aiza, dia ny vahoaka no tompon’ny fahefana fa mpindrana fotsiny ny mpitondra. Ka raha vahoaka haka izay nampindraminy no andraisana azy ireo, tsy ho azo natao ve ny nifampiresaka taminy? Raha ny fandraisako azy mants (tsy asiko firehana an!), dia rehefa tonga amin’ny fara-tampony toy izao ny fitakian’ny vahoaka, dia efa lasa ambonin’ny lalàna rehetra izany fitakiana izany, ka mihisaka maka zoron-trano daholo aloha na ny Lalampanorenana, na ny hafa. Diso ve aho? Raha eny, mba hazavao ny saiko.”

“Because in any country, the power belongs to the people, the president is merely the borrower. So if the people wants to take back what has been merely lended, how can one not negotiate with them? According to my understanding (and without my leaning towards anybody!), when people's demands are this extreme, they should supercede any laws, and the Constitution and any other laws should take second place. Am I wrong? If I am, please enlighten me.”

He writes about his visit to the injured at the HJRA hospital and posts pictures of the wounded and dead (Warning: very explicit pictures).

Tsy nitsahatra ny fivezivezen’ireo taxi sy fiaran’olon-tsotra ary fiara mpamonjy voina hatramin’ny fito ora hariva (19h) nialako teny amin’ny HJRA androany. Noho ny fahafenoan’ny toerana tao amin’ny tranom-paty dia nisy tamin’ireo razana no napetraka teny ambony bozaka teo an-tokontany aloha mandra-pandamina ny tao anatiny. Be ireo olona tsara sitrapo no namonjy hainga ny HJRA mba hanone maimaim-poana ny rany ho vonjy aina. Hatramin’ny karana aza dia tonga teny. Nanontany azy ireo aho ny amin’ny antony nahatongavany teny hanome rà. Sao mba misy havany marary ao. Rehefa tonga tety tokoa mantsy ka natao ny fanisana faramparany azoko natao talohan’ny nialako ny hopitaly dia dimampolo latsaka ny maty voatifitra. Ny naratra moa dia miditra isaky ny minitra angamba. Misy ny afaka nalefa nody fa ratra vokatry ny fifanosehana kely, fa nisy ireo nojerem-potsiny fa tsy nisy azo natao aminy intsony, nefa tsy vitan’ireo mpitsabo koa ny tonga dia hanatitra olona miala aina ho any amin’ny tranom-paty avy hatrany.

Taxi cabs, cars and ambulances were continuously shuttling to the HJRA hospital until seven o'clock tonight when I left the hospital. Because the morgue was overflowing, some bodies were left on the grass outside until the morgue was ready. Many volunteered to donate their blood to save others. Even Karanas (Note of the translator : Indians and Pakistanis who live in Madagascar) came to donate their blood. I asked them about their motivations. Did they have any relatives there. According to the latest count, when I left the hospital, there were about fifty deceased. Injured people came in every minutes. Some were sent home, because they were lightly injured, but for some there was nothing to be done, but the rescuers could not just bring the expiring bodies to the morgue.

He also reports on people's reactions on radio:

“Ireo onjam-peo izay henoina amin’izao ora izao dia mikiaka valifaty noho ny rà latsaka , ary mitaky ny fisamborana an-dRavalomanana daholo izay antso an-tarobia tafiditra. Miantso tody ihany koa ho amin’ny taranak’ingahy Ravalomanana, ary misy mihitsy aza ny midradradra ny amin’ny hisamborana sy hamonoana azy.”

“Radio stations I am listening now are calling for revenge because for the bloodshed, and broadcast phone calls are demanding the arrest of Ravalomanana. They are calling for karma, a just return of things to Ravalomanana's descendants, and some repeatedly voiced requests for his arrest and execution.”

Jentilisa writes on immediate reactions in the streets after and during the shootings, with other reactions than those cited by Avylavitra. He also reports on opportunists who pounced on the occasion to wreak more havoc and loot some more:

“Ny nahavariana, teny Soarano indrindra aho no nandre ny tifitra voalohany, fa nikoropaka avokoa na dia ny olona tany aza. Samy nandositra avokoa na ny mandeha an-tongotra na ny mpitondra fiarakodia ka nisy ny tsy nahatandri-tena intsony ka nodonin'ny fiara izay nanavotr'aina ihany koa. Mafy dia mafy ny nahazo ilay ramatoa voadona… Tsitapitapitr'izay fa nikatona avokoa ny toeram-pivarotana rehetra. Maro tamin'ny mpivarotra amoron-dalana no nanangona ny entany. Tsy niala tamin'ny toerany kosa anefa ny atsasaky ny mpivarotra teny Isotry (tsena ny andro Asabotsy) izay mihevitra fa tsy hanenjika olona hatreny kosa ny mpitandro ny filaminana. Nahare poa-basy koa ny teny Besarety, nahavariana ihany io raha ny halavitry ny toerana no heverina, hay saiky hisy hamaky avy hatrany indray ny shoprite teo Ambodivona izay tsy vaky nandritra ny andron'ny talata 27 janoary 2009. (…)
Nitantara mivantana avokoa manko ny ankamaroan'ny fampielezam-peo tamin'ity vanim-potoana “lehibe” ity… ka maro tamin'ireo tsy mankasitraka ny tolona no efa mitaintaina nahatonona mihitsy hoe “tifiro! tifiro amin'izay!” ary mba nahatonona koa izy ireo hoe “ela loatra koa izy izany!”. Malahelo aho milaza aminareo fa maro tamin'ireo izay tsy niomana ho eny, no nahasahy nilaza mihitsy hoe “nahazo izay notadiaviny izy izany!” ka toa tsy antra fo tamin'izay niharam-pahavoazana mihitsy aza. Ny mpankasitraka ny tolona sy izay nankeny Ambohitsorohitra kosa (ny teny Isotry no tena nohenoiko) dia mamerimberina hatrany fa “ny mpikarama an'ady” (ilay laingalainga nafafy hatry ny ela) no nitifitra fa tsy nisy Malagasy nitifitra izany. Maro tamin'izy ireo no nanozona ny filoha Ravalomanana sy nilaza azy ho mpamono olona. Inona koa? ny filoha Ravalomanana sy ny Praiminisitra no naneho voalohany ny fiaraha-miory sahady… fa i Andry Rajoelina kosa tamin'ny 18:30 vao nanao izany sady “nitomany” nanameloka an-dRavalomanana ho tompon'andraikitra amin'izao vono-olona izao. “

“I was in Soarano when the first shots were heard, and even there people panicked. Pedestrians and drivers fled without paying attention and one pedestrian was hit by a car. She was in bad condition…All shops closed abruptly. Peddlers gathered their wares. Half the peddlers in Isotry stayed put though (Saturday is a market day there) because they thought that the police would not pursue anyone that far. We also heard shots in Besarety, which was amazing because it was quite far from the Presidential Palace, some were ready to loot the Shoprite in Ambodivona, one grocery store that had not been looted on Tuesday, January 21, 2009. (…)
Almost all radio stations reported this “great” event live..and many of those who are not followers of the movement were heard saying “shoot! shoot now!” and some expressed their impatience “this is taking too long!”. I am sad to report that many of those who did not walk to the Palace dared to say that “they got what they deserved!” appearing to have no sympathy for the fallen. The followers of the movement and those who went to Ambohitsirohitra (I heard opinions from those in Isotry mostly) repeated that mercenaries (lies long spread by some) had shot because no Malagasy would fire. Many cursed President Ravalomanana and condemned him as a murderer. What else? The President and his Primeminister were first to express their condolences… Andry Rajoelina waited until 18:30 to do so, and then “cried” when condemning Ravalomanana as the one responsible for the deaths.”

Jentilisa also analyzes the two only possible outcomes of Saturday's rally when Andry Rajoelina nominated Monja Roindefo, as “prime minister” of his governement:

“Tranga roa no tsy maintsy hitranga nanomboka ny tolakandro ka efa tafakatra teny Antaninarenina amin'izay ireo olona (miala tsiny mivantambantana miteny hoe ny avy any ambany tanàna no tena maro an'isa tamin'ny fitarihana sy fialohavana teny ampilaharana tonga teny Antaninarenina): Na mitifitra ny mpitandro ny filaminana na may Ambohitsorohitra, ireo ihany, tsy misy hafa. Raha nanaiky ny hidiran'ny vahoaka ny lapan'Ambohitsorohitra ny miaramila tao anatiny dia mivandravandra fa tsy mifehy ny tafika intsony ny filoha Ravalomanana ka tsara ho azy ny miala ny toerany avy hatrany. Ny olona koa etsy andaniny efa mihorakoraka ny “ela loatra” ary tsy maintsy handroso (“jusqu'à la mort” hoy ny tarigetran'ny mpanohana ny TGV izay). Ny zavatra nahavariana dia tsy niakatra nankeny Antaninarenina mihitsy i Andry fa ny lalana mody ny azy no nasiany olona, noho izany dia ny Jly Dolin Rasolosoa no tena nandrindra ny fihetsiketsehana rehetra sy ny fifampiresahana tamin'ny mpitandro ny filaminana. Ny “Praiminisitra” vao notendrena Monja Roindefo Zafitsimivalo kosa moa dia karazana kofehy manara-panjaitra ihany.”

“Two outcomes were possible when the crowd arrived to Antaninarenina [where the Presidential palace is located], and I apologize for saying brutally that most of the demonstrators leading the crowd originated from the poorer neighborhoods : either the soldiers would shoot, or the Palace would burn, either one, no other possibilities. If the military lets the crowd enter the Palace of Ambohitsirohitra, then it would be obvious that President Ravalomanana does not control the army anymore, and it would be better for him to resign immediately. The crowd was screaming “This is taking too long” and we have to advance (“until death” said some TGV supporters). What is amazing to me is that Andry did not go to Antaninarenina and went home, so the retired General Dolin Rasolosoa was the one managing the crowd and leading negotiations with the military. Monja Roindefo Zafitsimivalo, the freshly designated “Prime Minister”, was but a follower.”

POV, a cartoonist, wonders what led the demonstrators to rush towards armed soldiers:

“Puis les coups de feu ont éclaté. Les enquêtes démontreront peut-être ce qui s’est passé. Je doute que ceux qui étaient en première ligne allaient se ruer sur une rangée de soldats prêts à tirer. Je soupçonne que la pression de la foule en arrière les a poussés à faire un pas trop loin, vers la zone sécurisée.”

“Then shots were fired. Investigations may show what happened. I doubt that those in first line were eager to rush towards a line of soldiers ready to fire. I suspect that there was pressure from the crowd behind them that pushed them to make one step too many, towards the secured zone.”

POV condemns Andry Rajoelina's actions :

“En lâchant sa foule sur le palais présidentiel, il a su (et espéré ?) qu’il y aurait certainement de la casse. Tel un général sur le champ de bataille, il se tient en retrait, observant les manœuvres de sa troupe, dirigée par ses lieutenants.
De tous les endroits où il pouvait envoyer sa horde, il a choisi le palais présidentiel. Symbolique, certes, mais c’est également une zone rouge – un site où les gardes sont autorisées, voire tenues d’ouvrir le feu sur ceux qui outrepassent les limites. Il a galvanisé la foule de rhétoriques du genre « entrez-y, le palais présidentiel appartient au peuple ! » Selon des témoignages, les gens ont d’abord flotté autour du site. Des pourparlers étaient en cours entre les lieutenants de Andry Rajoelina et les chefs de la garde présidentielle.”

“By releasing his crowd on the Presidential palace, he knew (and hoped?) that there would be damage. Like a general on battle grounds, he stayed in retreat, observing movements of his troops, led by his lieutenants. Of all the places where he could send his horde, he chose the Presidehtial Palace. A symbolic place, but also a red zone, a location where guards are authorized, even obligated to fire on trespassers. He has excited the crowd with rhetorics like “Get in, the presidential palace belongs to the people !” According to witnesses, people first walked around the palace. Negotiations were being conducted between the lieutenants of Andry Rajoelina and leaders of the presidential guard.”

News2Dago reproduces a column written by Valiavo Nasolo Andriamihaja, where the latter wonders if President Ravalomanana is still in charge in the country and calls for him to resign if he has lost control:

“Impiry impiry, hatramin’ny nanombohan’izao raharaha izao, no nitsangana sy niteny ny olona maro sady tsy momba ny atsy no tsy momba ny aroa : «mampidi-kizo izao fiziriziriana izao, tsy maintsy ny resaka no vaha-olana». Tsy misy nihaino isika.(…)
Ilay Filoham-pirenena, tsy hita, tsy nandrenesam-peo, mahabe ahiahy ny olon-tsotra manara-dalàna sady tsy tia korontana. Raha mba miteny indray, lavitra loatra, toa zary miafina, sanatria toa efa lositra. Fa Fanjakana inona loatra ity eto amintsika ity ? Tompon’andraikitra amin’ny haja sy voninahitra fotsiny fa mialangalana rehefa misy fahasahiranana ? Ianao ihany, Ravalomanana, no nihomehy ilay mpiandry omby miandry omby tokana : «tsy fantatra intsony, hoy ianao, iza no sefo, izy sa ilay omby». Mbola sefo ve ianao, Ravalomanana ?”

“How many times, since the beginning of this affair, have numerous neutral people said : “this relentlessness will led to catastrophe, dialog is the solution”. Nobody listened. (…) The President, invisible, unheard, is unable to reassure simple law abiding citizens who loathe unrests. When the President speaks, he seems so remote, almost in hiding, God forbid, already vanquished. What government is this? Is this government in charge only of honor and respect, but powerless in the face of crisis? It is you, Ravalomanana, who laughed at the cow herder herding a single cattle head : “you said one does not know anymore who is the boss, the cow herder or the animal.” Are you still the boss, Ravalomanana? “

A feeling echoed by a commenter on Avylavitra's blog:

“Maninona raha noraisina fotsiny ireo solo tenan’ny mpitokona dia nosamborina raha nilaina dia naparitaka fotsiny ny olona avy eo ? Raha tsy mandray andraikitra haingana ianao sy ny gouvernemantanao eny fa na amin kery aza raha ilaina hampandeha ny raharaha andava,andro dia tokony ary rariny raha mametra pialana ianao.”

“Why were the insurrectionists not arrested if needed, then the people simply dispersed? If you and your government do not take charge quickly, even by force, to re-establish the order, then you should and you must resign.”

On rumors spread by the VIVA and Antsiva stations, both supporters of Andry Rajoelina, that the presidential guard did not warn before shootings and on the rumored presence of weapons among the demonstrators, Jentilisa comments on Avylavitra's blog:

“Miarahaba anao rahalahy! Tamin’ny vaovao manokana navoakan’ny Tvplus voalohany indrindra tamin’ny Asabotsy dia nisy iny tovolahy naratran’ny bala tamin’ny tongony iny. Nisy nibata ilay zalahy io ka rehefa napetraka tamin’ny tany tao amin’ny toerana vonjimaika hitsaboana ilay zalahy dia nisy bala niraraka avy tamin’ilay olona sivily nibata io naratra io. Tsy niverina intsony ilay ampahantsary fa notapahina nandritra ny vaovao manokana hafa rehetra tamin’io andro io. Midika izany fa “nisy” nitondra fiadiana avy taty amin’ny vahoaka, izay nolazain’i Andry Rajoelina tamin’ny resaka nifanaovana tao amin’ny Viva TV androany, fa na nitondra fitaovam-piadiana aza ny vahoaka araka ny nambarany tsy tokony hamaly mihitsy ny mpitandro ny filaminana.”

“I salute you brother! During the special news reported by TVplus on Saturday, they showed a young man with injuries in his legs. Somebody carried him to an emergency makeshift care facility for him to be treated, and the civilian who carried that man to be treated then dropped bullets on the floor. This portion of the news was not broadcast again during that special news report. It means that “there were” weapons carried by the people, and Andry Rajoelina said during his interview on VIVA TV today, that even if the people carried weapons, soldiers should not fire back.”

Finally, Lomelle and Pakysse both write moving hommages to Ando, the journalist who lost his life while covering the rally and the siege of the Presidential Palace. 

  • Nirina

    Hi Mialy!
    Tsara be ilay famintinana. Gosh, you are a very good writer!
    I am torn … I think I lost hope … stressed out about the situation and feel really helpless. Some friends and relatives are in distress as houses and goods are burned down without warning and one word can make you penalized to beloong to the other side of the camp. And, still no one has a solution.
    Peace!
    Nirina Razafindrazato

  • www.madagasikara.de
  • JL

    Tout d’abord, mes condoléances sincères aux familles des disparus ou meurtris, de quelque bord qu’ils soient!

    Prenons un peu de recul sur les évènements SVP!

    Depuis des mois déjà, des personnes sensées et réfléchies avaient lancé des appels à la concertation et au dialogue, car nous nous acheminions irrémédiablement vers une explosion sociale dont nous ne pouvions que deviner la forme et l’envergure…

    Prenons encore plus de recul: Nous empruntons des dizaines de millions d’USD tous les ans, et sommes pourtants incapables de nous doter d’une force anti-émeute digne de ce nom.

    Tout pays comme le notre (très pauvre et largement inéduqué) devrait apprendre de l’histoire et savoir que les chocs sociaux sont probables et récurrents tant que le niveau de pauvreté, éducation, et manque de démocratie réelle sont tels que les notres!

    Pourquoi nos forces de l’ordre ne sont-elles pas dotées d’outils efficaces et “non mortels”, pourtant communs hors de nos frontières…que sont les véhicules lance jet d’eau haute pression?

    Pourquoi nos éléments anti-émeute ne sont-ils pas équipés de balles en caoutchouc et “tazers”?

    L’efficacité des ces outils n’est plus à démontrer à travers le monde!

    Au lieu et en place des Kalach qui ne serviront qu’à nous entretuer!

    Qui va donc nous attaquer? Les Mauriciens? Les Comoriens? Cela me rappelle vaguement les MIG 21 d’un certain autre clown!

    Tout ceci était prévisible, pourtant les deux parties s’en tiennent encore aujourd’hui aux réactions et analyses primaires, imbues d’émotions et desseins politiques.

    Le mal est fait! Nous devons nous ressaisir immédiatement, car si cette crise perdure, les dégats économiques déjà catastrophiques nous achèveront sans aucun doute.

    En sus de pleurer nos morts, nous allons etre témoins de la descente d’une frange importante de notre population vers l’enfer d’une pauvreté encore plus extreme!

    Bien entendu, ceci ne fera qu’alimenter le feu des prochaines épisodes à venir…

    Alors, pour l’amour de ce Dieu qui semble pourtant avoir une place si grande dans notre pays, tellement on l’invoque à toutes les sauces pour démontrer la justesse de nos raisonnements bassements humains:

    “Reveillons-nous et prenons les deux protagonistes ainsi que leurs lieutenants respectifs par la peau des fesses, et exigeons une médiation fructueuse IMMEDIATEMENT!

    Faute de quoi, chassons les tous!”

    Je ne pourrais conclure sans dire un mot de nos chers “bailleurs/partenaires”, restés timorés sinon silencieux, tout le long de cette crise et bien avant; tout en étant dans le secret des Dieux par rapport à des agissements réprehensibles dont-ils avaient pourtant une connaissance plus que vague.

    Vous aussi, portez un responsabilité dans ce fiasco qui coutera si cher a des millions des notres qui vivotaient, au bord de la déchéance et du goufre ou ils seront sans doute plongés incessament.

    Bien entendu, vous attendrez tranquillement l’avènement du prochain régime avec lequel il faudra bien travailler, car le taux de décaissement ne saurait en souffrir…

    Un peu du genre “Omar m’a tuer”, pour ceux qui suivent les faits divers…

    Les jours qui viennent seront critiques, et les décisions prises auront un impact certain, si cela est encore possible, sur la durée et l’envergure des pertes que notre pays va subir.

    Au final, pouvons nous nous en sortir?

    YES WE CAN!!!

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  • I am so sorry to hear about the loss of Ando Ratovonirina. And at such a young age. Avylavitra’s photographs are horrific. I think he is probably right … the rule of law is only as stable as our faith in it. It is both shameful and depressing that so many lives are being lost due to a political showdown between two leaders. Let’s hope a peaceful solution emerges and soon.

  • Tiana Rasendrasoa

    Just feeling so helpless…. Not knowing what tomorrow will bring to my beloved country. God, please help!

  • Marc Ravalomanana and Andre Rajoelina should sit at the table and hold talks to arrive at an amicable solution. In situations of national emergency such as is being witnessed in Madagascar it is imperative to give dialogue a chance, through honest negotiation and deliberation. Although he may have a point, however, by declaring himself president Rajoelina only exposes his supporters to more direct confrontation with the police who are armed and deadly. Let sanity prevail. Tado in Nairobi.

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  • Miquel

    En premier lieu j’expresse mes condoleances pour les familles des victimes.

    Merci beaucoup pour les traductions en differentes langues. Grace a vous nous savons ce que pensent reellement les malgaches.

    J’espere qu’il ait paix en votre pays et la communaute internationale defende la democratie.

    Excusez-moi si mon francais est mauvais. Je ne suis pas francophone.

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