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Recife, Brazil: Trumpeting 100 Years of Frevo, and Musical Innovation on the Eve of Carnival

Frevo 100 Anos

Recife is the capital city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast of Brazil. The pulse of Carnival has been growing in a crescendo in recent days, justly honoring it's fame of being among the three cities with the hottest festivals, along with Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. Recife is also known as the capital of Frevo, a rhythmic and musical movement which was born here and is celebrating 100 years since its recognition as a new style. Now, on its centennial it is being officially recognized as National Cultural Heritage by the government. With only five days to go before the main Carnival festivities, Frevo's anniversary party attracted artists from all over Brazil. Many stages dispersed throughout Recife's charming old downtown zone were kept busy with crews and musicians setting up equipment, rehearsing and performing.

Hoje, 09 de fevereiro, o Frevo comemora 100 anos. No século XIX era conhecido como marcha carnavalesca, mas em 1907 na edição do Jornal Pequeno, periódico da época, recebeu o nome de Frevo. O nome foi uma corruptela da palavra ferver que o povo simples, com seu português gostoso que não macaqueia a sintaxe lusíada – como escreveu Manuel Bandeira em seu Evocação ao Recife – falava “frever”. Daí para frevo foi um passo… Hoje, quando completa 100 anos, o frevo recebe o título do Patrimônio Cultural e Material do Brasil. Volta, por iniciativa oficial, a se mostrar para todos os brasileiros. Para os pernambucanos o frevo não é apenas patrimônio, é legado de identidade.
Série Carvanal de Pernambuco: Frevo de BlocoNotícias do Planalto

Today, February 09, Frevo is celebrating 100 years. During the 19th century it was known generically as a carnival march but in 1907, in an edition of a local newspaper called ‘Jornal Pequeno’, it received the name of Frevo. The name was a dialect way of pronouncing the word ‘ferver’ (to boil), performed by simple people with their delicious Portuguese that does not clone Lusiad's syntax — they would say ‘frever’. From there to ‘frevo’ was just a step… Today, when it completes a hundred years, Frevo will receive the title of National Cultural Immaterial Heritage. It's an official initiative to better highlight it to all Brazilians. To Pernambucans Frevo is not only heritage, but identity and legacy.
Pernambuco's Carnival Series: Bloc-FrevoNotícias do Planalto

Como praticamente todos os gêneros musicais consolidados no Brasil, o frevo nasceu da confluência das culturas européia e afro-brasileira. Historiadores pernambucanos asseguram que, antes de o termo frevo aparecer no Jornal Pequeno do Recife, ele já dava os primeiros trinados e bailados numa simbiose de polcas, modinhas, dobrados e maxixes e jogos pastoris (formação de pau e corda) pelas ruas da capital pernambucana. As bandas de música (civil ou militar) da época ajudaram a dar a conformação sonora ao que se conhece hoje do frevo, uma massa musical destacada pelos metais. Sobre o frevo-de-rua, a versão instrumental do gênero, o maestro Guerra-Peixe disse uma vez ser “a única música popular que não admite o compositor de orelha”. Era uma referência à exigência técnica dessa música e um destaque aos maestros que comandavam as trupes “frevísticas”.
Ferveção Centenária em Carta Maior via Luis Hipólito's Blog

Frevo was born from the confluence of European and Afro-Brazilian cultures, as probably did all the other musical genres consolidated in Brazil. Historians from Pernambuco assure that, before the term appeared in Recife's ‘Jornal Pequeno’, it was already heard and danced in a symbiosis of polkas, ‘modinhas’, ‘dobrados’ e ‘maxixes’ e ‘jogos pastoris’ (stick and rope formations) along the streets of Pernambuco's capital. The music bands (civilian or military) of the time helped giving the sound the defining character we have come to know as the Frevo, a musical mass defined by the brasses. About the Street-Frevo, conductor Guerra Peixe said once that “it is the only popular genre that does not admit the ‘play-by-ear composer'”. He was referring to the technical hardship of this kind of music, and stressing the role of conductors who led the ‘frevistical’ troupes.
Centennial Boiling em Carta Maior via Luis Hipólito's Blog

A música nasceu do dobrado entoado pelas bandas militares que acompanhavam os blocos de carnaval (na época chamados de clubes), e a dança foi criada espontâneamente, no meio da rua, pelo próprio povo.. a partir de movimentos de capoeira. Com o tempo, os músicos foram acelerando a batida para acompanhar os passos do capoeira, e os “passistas” foram desenvolvendo seus passos também para acompanhar os músicos. Esse entrosamento serviu para se criar essa dança linda que temos hoje em dia. O mais interessante é que a capoeira, nessa época, era proibida no país… mas em Recife, durante o carnaval, era feita uma certa “vista grossa”. Talvez por isso que essa dança é tão forte no coração e na alma do povo pernambucano. Quem nunca foi em Pernambuco não entende muito bem o frevo… para muitos é só uma dança folclórica com as sombrinhas e as pessoas com roupas coloridas. O frevo é preciso sentir.. é preciso viver.. é uma coisa que entra no sangue e fica lá, pelo resto da vida.
100 anos de frevoDestino: 63ºN 10ºE

The music was born from the ‘dobrado’ performed by the military bands that played in the carnival blocs (which were at the time called ‘clubs’), and the dance was spontaneously created on the street by the crowds… from capoeira movements. As times passed by, the musicians started to accelerate the beat in order to follow the capoeira steps, and the ‘passists’ [dancers] managed to develop their moves also to follow the musicians. The interplay worked out this wonderful dance that we have today. The interesting thing about it is that capoeira was, at that time, prohibited in the country… but in Recife, during the Carnival, there was some tolerance. Maybe that is the reason that this dance touches so deeply in the heart of Pernambuco people. Those who never went to Pernambuco can't understand well the Frevo… For many it is just a folkloric dance with the little umbrellas and people with colorful clothes. Frevo has to be felt… has to be lived… it is something that enters into your blood and there stays, for the rest of your life.
100 years of FrevoDestino: 63ºN 10ºE

There are some interesting reports of bloggers being caught by the waves of music and dance celebrations echoing along the streets of Recife in these last days. I've witnessed it myself, and tried to capture some movements of a big frevo group on the ‘February 9′ celebrations with my little point-and-shoot camera.

Depois de uma semana de pouco sono, a chegada em Recife foi demais. Sol, sol e sol todos os dias, a água do mar verde e quente e tome cerveja. Um pouco da Feira de Música (comentários sobre a feira virão depois) e tome música. A cidade transpira cultura de uma forma inexplicável… Apenas para constar, todos os shows do Recife Antigo são gratuitos, são 5 palcos (que eu tenha visto), sendo que o maior comporta shows para até 100 mil pessoas e todos com qualidade impecável de som… Esse clima aconchegante é a cara desse carnaval. O tempo todo de sorrisos no rosto, festa, alegria mesmo. Não tem área vip, camarote, pulseirinha, enfim, todos brincando juntos na rua, melhor impossível… Na sexta aconteceu um show histórico (na verdade dois) pra comemorar o centenário do Frevo (que ainda comemore mais muitos centenários!!). Primeiro grandes nomes da música brasileira como Gilberto Gil, Ney Matogrosso, Maria Rita, Alceu Valença, Elba Ramalho, Vanessa da Mata, Lenine, Luiz Melodia etc, acompanhados pela Spok Frevo Orquestra interpretaram os grandes frevos da história. A multidão que acompanhou o show estava em estado de graça, se divertindo e celebrando o ritmo que embala suas festas constantemente… Na terra do frevo tem espaço pro samba, eletronico, rock, reggae, enfim, todos são bem recebidos. Mas passando despretensiosamente pela Rua da Moeda, dei de cara no Naná Vasconcellos ensaiando com os Maracatus. Deviam ser uns 300 tambores, uma coisa incrivel, forte.
Quero poder contar pessoalmenteAntológico

After a week of poor sleep, arriving in Recife was just a blast. Sun, sun, and sun everyday, a green sea of tepid waters, and bring down the beer. A little time in the Musica Brazil Trade Show (some comments about this event will come later), and lots of music. The city perspires culture in some unexplainable ways… Just to mention, all the shows in Old Recife are for free, there are 5 stages (that I have seen), with the biggest one allowing audiences of up to 100,000 people, and all of them with exquisite sound quality… This affectionate mood sets the tone for the carnival we see here. Smiling faces all the time, parties, true joy. There are no vip areas, no berths, id bracelets, everybody partying together on the streets, impossible to imagine a better celebration. On Friday there was a historical show (in fact, two) to celebrate Frevo's first centenary (may it celebrate many more centenaries!!). First there were the big names of the Brazilian music such as Gilberto Gil, Ney Matogrosso, Maria Rita, Alceu Valença, Elba Ramalho, Vanessa da Mata, Lenine, Luiz Melodia, etc, together with the Spok Frevo Orquestra playing the great Frevos of all times. The enchanted crowd followed the show rejoicing and celebrating the beat that is constantly present in their feasts…. In the land of Frevo, there is also space for samba, electronic, rock, reggae, all of them are welcomed. While unpretentiously walking by Rua da Moeda, I was surprised by meeting Nana Vasconcelos rehearsing with the Maracatus. It should be like 300 drums, something incredibly strong.
I want to tell it personallyAntológico

After my strange exhausted Thursday travel day, I jerked awake to the sound of a HUGE frevo brass band. The sun was streaming in my window, hot and bright. The band was UNBELIEVABLY loud. (and good! This one had a really tight brass section. Harmonies and everything!) I looked at my clock – it said 6:00. Could I possibly have slept through an entire day – could it be 6pm? There couldn´t be a huge 120-decibel frevo band on the street at 6am, could there? Turned out, there could be. Frevo alarm clock, 6am. The whole pousada woke up. The whole TOWN woke up. There is TONS going on in Recife. There are giant stages set up all over the city and about a zillion maracatu rehearsals & parades. Yesterday was the 100th anniversary of frevo (to the day) and there was a huge frevo show. The last giant multi-nacao show is tonight! Tomorrow the parades start.
hit the ground running in Recifesamba kat's Rio Stories

Right in the middle of
this effervescent cultural gathering there also was the ‘Feira Música Brasil‘ [Musica Brazil Trade Show], promoted by the Brazilian Independent Music Association, the Ministry of Culture in partnership with a Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), and Pernambuco's state government. In times when the mainstream music industry is at odds with the digital ‘menace’ and with its own customers, the goal of the event was to gather everyone interested in debating and exploring the music potential as an economy for all — business opportunity, income, job and foreign currency generator, as well as a vector for the development of the country. Funny as it seems, there were no representatives of the major five recording companies operating in Brazil. Maybe they were too busy thinking what to do about Steve Jobs manifesto, which asks for the end of DRM restrictions in music files sold online.

“Esta feira é um projeto piloto. Vai permitir a integração do setor com os desdobramentos tecnológicos que estão impactando a música, tais como a Internet, o iPod e outros equipamentos. Esses momentos de transformação tecnológica são estratégicos, e a promoção desta feira é um ponto de referência e interação dessas duas coisas” frisou Gil
Lançada oficialmente a Feira Música Brasil 2007, promovida pelo Ministério da Cultura e BNDESSite do BNDES

“This trade show is a pilot project. It will allow the integration of the sector with the technological unfolding that is impacting the music, such as the Internet, the iPod and other devices. These moments of technological transformations are strategic, and the promotion of this event is a intersection node of these two things” remarked Gil [Gilberto Gil, Brazilian Ministry of Culture]
Officially launched the Feira Música Brasil 2007, produced by the Ministry of Cuture and BNDESSite do BNDES

A idéia era agrupar todos os envolvidos na indústria, mas tem gente grande que ficará de fora. As cinco maiores gravadoras do país (as multinacionais Sony BMG, Universal, EMI e Warner, além da Som Livre) não estarão em Recife entre hoje e domingo. “Elas [grandes gravadoras] foram convidadas”, afirma Carlos de Andrade, presidente da ABMI. “Nos reunimos com presidentes das multinacionais, até insistimos na participação deles. Mas eles não acreditam na feira. Têm a postura “Quem faz a indústria sou eu. Vocês estão brincando de discos. Não converso com garotos”. Essa é a atitude deles.” O presidente da Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos (ABPD), Paulo Rosa, diz que ficou sabendo da existência da feira “por reportagens de jornais”. “E depois recebemos um convite do MinC que chegou em cima da hora, no dia 2 de fevereiro. Além disso, não participamos em momento algum da concepção desse evento. Mas não houve recusa da nossa parte. Ainda nem respondi ao convite. Vou responder agradecendo, mas tenho outros compromissos.”
Feira Música Brasil começa em meio a polêmica entre grandes e pequenos – in Folha de S. Paulo via

The idea was to group all involved in the industry, but there are big players who won't be around. The five major recording companies in the country (the international corporations Sony BMG, Universal, EMI and Warner, besides Som Livre) won't be in Recife. “They [the majors] were invited”, affirms Carlos de Andrade, president of the Brazilian Independent Music Association – ABMI. “We had a meeting with the corporations’ presidents, we insisted on their participation, but they did not believe in the idea of the event. They talk like ‘The industry is made by me. You are playing around with recordings. We won't talk with kids”. This was their attitude”. The President of the Brazilian Discs(!) Producers Association, Paulo Rosa, said that he became aware of the event “through articles in newspapers”. “Afterwards, we received an invitation from MinC (Ministry of Culture) that arrived too close from the event, on February 2nd. Besides, we were not at any time invited to debate the concept of the event. But there wasn't any refusal from our part. I haven't responded the invitation. I will give thanks for it, but I really have other commitments.”
Feira Música Brasil stars with a controversy between big and small recording companies – in Folha de S. Paulo via

Mauricio Bussab, da Tratore, bateu na tecla da distribuição digital. “Nos EUA, esse formato já representa 20% do mercado. No Brasil ainda é de apenas 1%. Para isso, ele propôs a redução imediata dos preços praticados por quem vende downloads no Brasil. “É preciso entender que o preço final de uma faixa não pode ser o preço de um disco inteiro dividido pelo número de músicas, porque a cabeça de quem compra só uma música via internet não é a mesma de quem compra um disco”. Bussab apresentou uma experiência da Tratore, segundo ele bem-sucedida, de venda de faixas a R$ 0,30. “Nós triplicamos o nosso faturamento, pois muito mais gente se dispôs a comprar”. Bussab também insistiu na necessidade de uma maior organização da indústria de entretenimento do país, que hoje anda manca, dependendo fundamentalmente de patrocínios e isenções fiscais. “A maior gravadora do país atualmente é a Petrobrás, que está financiando a maioria dos projetos de cultura. Não podemos ficar dependentes disso”.
Amplificando ExperiênciasViajandão

Mauricio Bussab, from Tratore, emphasized the issue of digital distribution. “In the US, the format represents 20% of the market. In Brazil it is only 1%.” In order to achieve the growth, he considered the immediate reduction of the prices fixed by those selling downloads in Brazil. “People have to understand that the final price of a song cannot be the price of a CD divided by the number of tracks, because the approach of someone who buys a song on the Internet is not the same as someone buying a CD album”. Bussab presented an experience developed at Tratore — successfully, according to him — of selling songs for R$ 0.30 [around 10 cents USD]. “We have tripled the gains, because a lot more people decided to buy”. Bussab also insisted on the need for a better organization of the entertainment industry in the country, which today still limps, depending fundamentally on sponsorship and fiscal incentives. “The biggest recording company in Brazil today is Petrobras, who is financing the majority of the cultural projects. We can't depend on that”.
Amplificando ExperiênciasViajandão

From many virtual corners
in the Brazilian blogosphere, just as in a ‘second life’ Recife, Frevo is buzzing through some streams, downloadable cds, podcasts and videocasts. The chance to be in contact with so many music sources in this digital exchange reflects directly on music quality. Having felt the effects of the generous availability of musical information on the web, many Brazilians want to learn about empowering the next new generation of artists to get in direct touch with their audience, and find new ways to create value from their work. Maybe mainstream management was too busy discussing what do about DRM to be here feeling the pulse of Recife. But they should have come. They too might have felt inspired.

O frevo de bloco é um dos mais contagiantes ritmos do carnaval de Pernambuco. O Hino do Elefante, que você leitor pode ouvir abaixo, é um ícone desses frevos de bloco. Não importa onde você esteja: em Recife, em Olinda ou no interior, quando os clarins anunciam o Hino do Elefante, os foliões se agitam, e todos, pernambucanos ou não, entoam a letra efusiva e pulam se esprememendo pelas ladeiras de Olinda. Fiquem com a letra e com a música.

The Bloc-Frevo is one of the more contagious carnival rhythms in Pernambuco. The Elephant Hymn, which you the reader can listen to below, is an icon of the Bloc-Frevos. No matter where you are: in Recife, in Olinda or in the interior, when the clarions anounce the Elephant's Hymn, frevo fans arouse and everyone, Pernambucans or not, sing the effusive lyrics and move to the beat along the narrow Olinda slopes. Be with the lyrics and the music.

Hino Do Elefante De Olinda / Olinda's Elephant Hymn
Clídio Nigro / Clóvis Vieira

Ao som dos clarins de Momo
O Elefante exaltando a suas tradições
O povo aclama com todo ardor
E também seu esplendor
Olinda esse meu canto
Foi inspirado em teu louvor
Entre confetes e serpentinas
Venho te oferecer
Com alegria o meu amor

Olinda! Quero cantar a ti esta canção
Teus coqueirais, o teu sol, o teu mar
Faz vibrar meu coração, de amor a sonhar
Em Olinda sem igual
Salve o teu Carnaval!

Série Carvanal de Pernambuco: Frevo de BlocoNotícias do Planalto

Olinda's Elephant Hymn
Clídio Nigro / Clóvis Vieira

To the sound of Momo's bugles
The Elephant exalting its traditions
Is acclaimed by the people with ardor
And also its splendor
Olinda this chant of mine
Was inspired to praise you
Among ‘confetes’ and ‘serpentinas’
That I come to offer
With joy my love to you

Olinda! I want to sing this song to you
Your palm trees, your sun and your sea
Makes my heart pulse, dreaming of love
With no equal as in Olinda
Hails to your Carnival!
Série Carvanal de Pernambuco: Frevo de BlocoNotícias do Planalto

This is a small Loronix celebration for Frevo 100 year’s anniversary. The word Frevo has its origins from the word Ferver – free translated as boil, in English. If you never had the chance to see a Frevo performance, take a look at YouTube, there are several ones. A Frevo performance is very difficult and seems to me that you need to be an athlete to make such complex movements. Frevo is still very popular in Brazilian Northeast region, if you are planning to spend your Carnaval there, you should probably see several performances. This is Zacarrias e Sua Orquestra – Frevo 40 Graus (1961), for RCA Victor. Maestro Zaccarias seems to be the master of mixing Brazilian rhythms with orchestra arrangements. He makes with Frevo this time on this nice set with single tracks on each side; Zaccarias connects all the tunes, ideal if you are planning to play Frevo on your Carnaval Party.
Zaccarias e Sua Orquestra – Frevo 40 Graus (1961) – 100th Frevo Anniversary CelebrationLoronix
[Disclaimer: Loronix is a space to promote forgotten, rare and unknown music not commercially available. The files are not hosted here, but widely available on the Internet. If you disagree with any post, please tell us. It will be promptly removed. Thanks.]

Dois nomes têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pela renovação e maior visibilidade nacional dada ao frevo nos últimos anos. São eles: Maestro Spok, no comando da SpokFrevo Orquestra, e Antônio Carlos Nóbrega, que há muito tem se dedicado à pesquisa das mais diversas manifestações culturais brasileiras. Em 1996, [o Maestro Spok] montou, junto com outros 18 talentosos músicos, a Orquestra de Frevo de Recife, formada para acompanhar shows da turnê Na Pancada do Ganzá, de Antônio Nóbrega. Em 2003, o grupo ressurge com o atual nome, SpokFrevo Orquestra, incrementando frevos tradicionais com novos arranjos e abrindo espaço para solos dos instrumentistas e improvisações, com clara influência jazzística, ou, como ele mesmo resume, “tocando com liberdade de expressão”. Sobre as afinidades entre frevo e jazz, o maestro explica: “Para mim, o jazz deixou de ser americano há muito tempo. Então eu uso a expressão jazzístico no sentido de uma música feita com liberdade de expressão, com improvisação. Se você faz um forró com liberdade de expressão, então ele é jazzístico. Mas quem toca na Orquestra são músicos pernambucanos, que são influenciados por músicas do mundo inteiro, mas que de forma alguma querem perder sua alma, que é de Pernambuco”.
Frevo RenovaçãoO Povo via Brasilian Music Treasure Hunt

Two names stand out as the main sources of renovation and national visibility in recent years: Condcutor Spok, leading the Sok Frevo Orchestra, and Antônio Carlos Nóbrega, who have dedicated long time to the research on Brazilian cultural manifestations. In 1996 [Conductor Spok] formed the Recife Frevo Orchestra along with 18 talented musicians, to play in the ‘Pancada do Ganzá’ Tour, with Antônio Nóbrega. In 2003 the group is relaunched with the present name, SpokFrevo Orchestra, enhancing traditional frevos with new arrangements and opening spaces for solos and improvisations, with some clear jazz influences or as he himself summarizes, “playing with freedom of expression”. About the affinities between frevo and jazz, the conductor explains: “To me, Jazz has stoped being American a long time ago. So I use the expression ‘jazzistic’ to talk about a music which is made with freedom of expression, with improvisations. If you play a Forró with freedom of expression, then it's jazzistic. But those who play in the Orchestra are musicians from Pernambuco, who are influenced by music from all over the world, but who in any case want to lose their Pernambucan souls.”
Frevo RenovationO Povo via Brasilian Music Treasure Hunt

February has begun, and in Brazil this means Carnival is coming!! To feel the mood, nothing better than a video featuring Spock Frevo Orquestra, showing the group's high intensity and all the joy that comes from Frevo, as well as some beautiful images of Recife, one of the cities where this style was born.
Miscelanea Playlist – 13Miscelanea Vanguardiosa Podcast

Sempre gostei de trabalhar com design gráfico e publicidade, mas meu tesão mesmo sempre foi a música e ao longo do tempo o que era apenas um prazer, ficar escutando bandas dos mais longínquos cantos do Brasil e do Mundo, acabou virando algo maior… Aos poucos durante esse Feira da Música do Brasil fui conhecendo pessoas novas, estreitando amizades e conseguindo ganhar um respeito e reconhecimento por parte de pessoas que não imaginavam quem eu realmente era, pessoas essas que são, produtores, donos de selos, músicos de bandas reconhecidas e de outras que estão no caminho ainda. Mas todos respeitam uns aos outros porque sabem o quanto é difícil essa estrada, e respeitam quem realmente quer tentar viver disso. Vamos ver onde isso tudo vai acabar, mas estou muito feliz com o rumo que todas essas mudanças estão indo.
Mudanças estão por virquiseraeu

I have always liked graphic design and advertising work but my real passion has been music. As time passed, what started as pleasure — to be listening to bands from far places in Brazil and the world — turned into something bigger. Little by little during this ‘Feira Musica Brasil’ I began to meet people, entering conversations that brought forth respect and recognition from people who at first sight could not imagine who I was. There was an openness among producers, record company owners, musicians from well known bands and not only from the newer and unproven ones. But I also felt that there was a clear consensus that making a living in music required traveling a road that is long and tough. Let's see where will it all end, but for now I am very happy with the direction of all the new ways that are arriving.
Changes are about to comequiseraeu


  • Thank you for the reference to my text. I’m pernambucana but this year I won’t experiment the carnival.. unfortunately.
    Great research about frevo! congratulations!


  • What an inspiring article, José, especially to a fan of Brazilian music and fellow citizen of a Carnival culture!

  • […] Frevo in Brazil. […]

  • Lovely!

  • […] After visiting Recife on the eve of Carnival, and feeling the pulse of an open and energetic celebration powered by people like you and me, in the middle of regular streets, I started to believe in Carnival. But then the TV formatted Brazilian carnival I grew up watching, the one which is still broadcasted as a world class show, sounded even more artificial and monotonous. In this situation, I could only take advantage of being part of such a dynamic and creative community as the Brazilian blogosphere, which is able to share solutions to solve every blogger’s problem. […]

  • Paulo Gilberto

    As a Pernambucano, living outside Brazil atm, this was the most amazing article I ever read on our culture and music. Very good job, very well written and datailed. I’d just like to make a small correction to the “Hino do Elefante de Olinda”. The first paragraph is:
    “Ao som dos clarins de Momo
    O povo aclama com todo ardor
    O Elefante exaltando a suas tradições
    E também seu esplendor”.
    It’s on my bookmarks now, and I will be sending the URL to friends.

  • Alô Paulo!
    Thanks for the correction, and thanks for the kind message.
    I am glad to say that I am going back to Recife tomorrow (voltei, Recife), to work on this conference, which is for me a great pleasure.
    Welcome to GV!
    All the best,

  • valeria paiva

    O grande mestre do frevo GETULIO CAVALCANTI será o mais novo CIDADÃO DE OLINDA, por iniciativa do VEREADOR MARCELO SOARES ,aprovad por unanimidade pela Câmara de Olinda.

  • […] Portuguese carnivals, but with the addition of African influenced rhythms such as maracatu and frevo. It is definitely the funniest (think of humorous masquerades, giant puppets and brass bands up and […]

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